As we already established this in previous blogs that in hydroponics plants are grown without soil, using nutrient rich solution provided directly to roots. Aeroponics is an advanced type of hydroponics system where plants are not fully submerged rather sprayed with mist of nutrient solution.

Aeroponics Overview:

Aeroponics comes from Latin words meaning ‘Air Labour’. To simply put its an alternate technique for soil-free cultivation in conditions that enhance development. Aeroponics is a specialized type that uses no soil and little to no nutrient solution. It seems as if plants are floating in the atmosphere. The plants lower stems are suspended in the tank using biodegradable foam.

Since the roots aren’t submerged in water solution the plants can breathe plenty of oxygen and the nutrients are provided using ultra fine sprays, pointed at roots. Roots are sprayed such as fine layer of nutrients cover them and the rest drips back to the bottom of tank that again gets reused for the next cycle. The spray works at a predetermined interval and a very minimal solution goes to waste in the aeroponic system resulting in insane growth rates and yields.

If you are a beginner hydroponic enthusiast we would recommend you to steer away from aeroponics as its tricky and sensitive. But if you have had some experience with such systems you will be able to achieve cheaper yields and a little amount of nutrient solution will go a long way.

Keep in mind though, these systems aren’t ideal if your plant is going to have long dense roots network, then we would steer you towards a system that can accommodate larger root masses. Using these technique the nutrient rich liquid is provided with extreme precision resulting in quick growth. you will need to take certain preliminary precautions as the system can collapse if the spray holes clog causing the roots to dry out as they solely depend on spray cycles.

For this system to work well, it is important to maintain proper temperature and to make sure that the necessary amount of nutrient-rich mist is available.

Key components:

Root System

 The plants are hanged in a container where roots are suspended in the air.


Nutrient solution is stored in a reservoir underneath the roots from where the sprayers takes water and the droplets fall back into, hence leading to no wastage.

Mist Spraying

Thin whole sprayers mist the roots with nutrient rich solutions at specific intervals.

Control Unit

Many systems have a fixed temperature and mist control setup.

Advantages of Aeroponics

Productive with rapid growth

Compared to soil-based farming, this method is more sustainable as it uses almost 90% less water.  If you aim to go fully commercial in this field, you can grow more food, healthier types and also more profitably because you can use height and air as a growing place.

Air Exposure promotes sustainable yield

As aeroponics uses air to suspend plants with spray of tiny drops of water, it is ideally suited to promote rapid plant growth. . As a result, compared to soil-based farming, more plants can be grown in less time.

Oxygen rich environment without land

If you have a place in your tiny garden or on the roof, you may use it right now to grow your food. To experience the beauty of aeroponics you can even build small system in your living room or balcony.

Disadvantages of Aeroponics

Although aeroponics provides numerous advantages but it requires special monitoring and care. If you are going to setup an aeroponics system make sure to be properly trained and be willing to upgrade your abilities by trying new technologies. Artificial light plays a vital role in success of such systems. In indoor systems you will have precise control over the duration, intensity and spectrum of light.

Aeroponic Plants

You cant grow everyplant in aeroponics, the most suited plants are green leafy items and herbs along with strawberries, tomatoes and cucmbers.

Although root and tuber crops are less common in this system, you can still cultivate them if you have access to the most modern infrastructure.

Aeroponic Vertical Farming

Vertical farming involves stacking layers of plants to maximize space utilization. Artificial lighting can be strategically positioned at different levels to ensure that each tier receives adequate light. This ensures uniform growth and development throughout the vertical structure.

To make your vertical farm successful you need to look into the following:

  • Conditions your plant require, for example: water, light, temperature, humidity etc.
  • Mist sprayers are not clogged and operating per interval

Deep Water Culture vs EBB & Flow

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Can I make my own hydroponic system?

One of the main reason for hydroponics popularity is its ease of building. You can either buy system kits suitable for your need or can easily customized with basic equipment to fulfil your demand. Various fruits, vegetables and herbs can easily be grown in your home or restaurant to achieve freshest possible taste. PVC, DWC are among the easiest to build and maintain.

Deep Water Culture

DWC is one of the most oldest system available in markets. In a DWC the roots are constantly suspended in a nutrient solution. If you are looking for a system for beginners this is the simplest one out there. It has few parts such as an air pump or air stone to oxygenate the solution. Monitoring the air pump is crucial, as any failure could cause the roots to drown from lack of oxygen.

Secure plants with net pots on a raft that holds the containers and submerge their roots directly into a reservoir with a nutrient solution. Provide air to the plant roots by installing a diffuser in the reservoir  attached to an air pump. Having an air pump will allow you to grow more plants successfully with a single reservoir tank.

Material needed:

  •  grow tank
  • air pump
  • net pots
  • growing medium

Top feed Dwc involves the use of bubble pump within the water reservoir which is further attached to small tubes. The nutrient rich water is directly provided to roots suspended in net pots.


  • Avoids installation of individual air stones
  • Bigger yields
  • Free from pests
  • Low maintenance
  • Better established plants
  • Cost effective
  • Aeration of the roots.


  • Air pump failure for Top feed Dwc
  • Constant maintenance of water temp
  • PH  and nutrients level regulation
  • Breeding ground for pathogens
  • Not suitable for vertical gardens
  • Not for plants that have longer growing time

EBB & Flow

Flood and drain hydroponics is another common name for EBB & Flow. In this system, water is flooded into the tank already containing the plants. The nutrient rich water is stored in a reservoir separate from the tank holding the plants. At predetermined time intervals water is left into the main tank were roots take up all nutrients needed and the rest is drained back into the reservoir. Keeping in mind an air pump must be provided in the reservoir tank to provide necessary oxygen.

The water flow cycle depends on the type of plants, air temperature, its growth cycle, and more. This cycle is repeated on a regularly

This type of hydroponics is very similar to aeroponics, except that the roots are entirely submerged for a while whereas in an aeroponic system they just get sprayed with a water and nutrient solution.

Material Needed

  • Reservoir tank
  • Grow  tank
  • Reversible water pump
  • Timer
  • Air pump


  • Plants are given a chance to breathe before the next cycle
  • Low maintenance just as any other method
  • Can grow larger plants such as root vegetables
  • Provides excellent aeration


  • Can lead to salt buildup
  • Unstable PH level
  • Root can dry out if environmental conditions aren’t favorable

The key point here is managing the irrigation cycles. Usually most of the plants require 5-10 mins water cycle every 2-3 ours. Number of cycles per day mostly depends on the number of light hours.

Tutorial: Water Moisture level Sensor

In this guide you will create a water moisture level monitoring sensor using ESP32 Dev module. The values of water level will be sent to a web application, it’s access and setup will be explained step by step using screenshots and understandable instructions. At the end of this tutorial you can easily check and reset your water moisture level sensor on your mobile phone from anywhere anytime.

Project Overview

In this project you will create a water moisture level sensor for your hydroponic garden plants using simple over the counter hardware. After setup this tutorial will teach you to create a mobile application to access the information of your sensor, its status and values. By the end of this tutorial you will be hands on creating multiple sensors and their monitoring along with changing basic preferences and fonts and other settings easily by just a few clicks.


Before starting to create the water moisture level sensor and application you need to check the following prerequisites

Used Software

  1. Arduino
  2. blynk Cloud
  3. Secure and stable internet connection

Hardware Component List

1ESP32 Dev Module1
2Moisture sensor1
3USB Cable1
4Connecting Wires1 pack

1. Schematics

The following diagram shows a overview of the project we will build-programming the ESP32 Dev and setting up of the Arduino will be explained under.

2. Instructions for setup

3. App Setup

Follow the next steps to setup your water level sensing application using blynk cloud

a. Go to blynk Cloud :
Signup on blynk cloud

b. Install the blynk cloud app on your phone from android studio or app store.

c. Blynk will send confirmation email on your email, verify that email and set password.

d. After that login on blynk cloud.

e. Select personal project.

f. Click on New Template.

g. A new pop-up window will appear, name the project as you wish, in this case I am naming it as Moisture meter. Once done with name select Hardware as ESP32 and Connection Type as WiFi and then click Done.

h. Save the Blynk template id and template name from side and note it down for future use.

i. Then click on setup data stream and then click New Data stream then select Virtual Pin.

j. Set the name and max value of the field and then click create.

k. Then click save.

l. On the blynk cloud app go to the developer zone.

m. Click on moisture meter.

n. A blank canvas will open.

o. Tap on the side of screen and select Labeled Value display.

p. Drag it to the center of the screen or wherever you prefer.

q. Click on the label.

r. Select the data stream we have created in step j.

s. Go back from developer zone and follow the next section.

4. Setup Code

Now you have successfully created the application on blynk cloud, follow the below steps to build up code in Arduino

a. Access the Library Manager by going to Arduino IDE >  Sketch  > Include library > Manage libraries

b. Utilize the search function to locate the blynk, then click the “Install” button corresponding to “ESP32 by Espressif Systems.”

c. Click on install and in few seconds library will be installed

d. In Arduino IDE > Go to file > Example > Blynk > Blynk Edgnet > Edgent_ESP32

e. A file like this will open.

f. Add the blynk Template ID and Template name as screenshot below.

g. Change the line 38 like screenshot below.

h. Add the readMoisture(); line in loop like the screenshot below.

i. Add the following lines in the code.

void readMoisture() {
  static unsigned long timer;
  if (millis() – timer > 250) {
    int sensorVal = analogRead(34);
    int percentageHumididy = map(sensorVal, 0, 4095, 100, 0);
    Blynk.virtualWrite(V0, percentageHumididy);
    timer = millis();
Arduino Code

5. Instructions to test code

After setting up Arduino and Blynk cloud app now follow the simple instructions to run and test it.

a. Press the compile button to compile code

b. Connect your ESP32 with computer

c. Select the com port from Arduino IDE > Tools > Serial port

d. Press the upload button and code will first start compiling and then start uploading.

e. In some ESP board you need to press and hold the BOOT/IO button on ESP board when it says connecting.

f. Code uploading is done.

6. Demonstration

Congratulations! You successfully deployed your app. Now its time to connect it and check the moisture level value. The web app is responsive, and you can access it using your smartphone, computer, or tablet.

a. Open the blynk cloud app.

b. Click on add new device

c. Find nearby device

d. Allow the Bluetooth permission to blynk and turn ON Bluetooth

e. Start the scan

f. Blynk will find the moisture device, connect with it.

g. Add the wifi details and continue

h. Blynk will start configuring

i. Click on finish

j. Moisture will start showing on screen.

k. If you want to change the font and style of moisture display you can click on settings icon and then click on moisture label and then switch to design tab and edit the settings.

7. Project Conclusion

In this tutorial, you learned how to create a water moisture level sensor, both its hardware and software setup along with web application setup was provided with easy and understandable steps.

If you have any questions or need assistance at any step you can always reach us!

Thanks for reading. Happy smart gardening!

Complete Hydroponic System Step by Step Guide

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I am Gul, an Electrical Engineer and working as an Embedded System Designer on for last 6 years. Hmm Engineering and gardening, weird combination, you must be thinking. Well during the last few years, I have designed multiple products for smart gardening system for my clients around the world. I always wanted to start a blog and share my knowledge but I was not sure how and what can I exactly share and give value to my readers.

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